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Nacións Unidas

A inminente reestruturación da ONU a través dunha lente realista histórica

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Por Kung Chan, fundador de ANBOUND, un think tank independente con sede en Pequín.

As nacións occidentais enfróntanse a unha crecente marxinación dentro desta organización internacional. A medida que se intensifican as voces disidentes doutras faccións dentro das Nacións Unidas, o caso da reestruturación faise cada vez máis convincente. O precedente histórico pódese atopar na Sociedade de Nacións.

The League of Nations, known as the Société des Nations in French, was established on January 10, 1920, at the end of World War I, following the Paris Peace Conference. It operated as an intergovernmental organization and played a pioneering role as the world’s first global body dedicated to maintaining peace, serving as a precursor to the United Nations.

The League’s primary objectives, outlined in the Covenant of the League of Nations, included the prevention of war through collective security and armament control, as well as the resolution of international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Similar to the United Nations today, the League addressed various global issues such as labor conditions, indigenous rights, drug and arms trafficking, public health, treatment of prisoners of war, and protection of minority groups in Europe. At its zenith, from September 28, 1934, to February 23, 1935, the League boasted 58 member states.

The League of Nations represented a significant evolution in global diplomatic practices over centuries. However, a notable limitation was its lack of an independent military force, relying instead on major powers to enforce its resolutions and economic sanctions or provide military assistance when necessary. As it stood, support that these powers were not consistently prepared to offer. Moreover, economic sanctions sometimes harmed the League’s own member states, reducing their willingness to fully cooperate. The United States notably abstained from joining due to the Senate’s rejection of the Treaty of Versailles.

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During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the League of Nations accused the Italian military of targeting medical tents of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The Italian dictator Benito Mussolini responded with the saying, “the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out”.

Desde unha perspectiva realista histórica, a clave das organizacións internacionais reside na responsabilidade das grandes potencias de facer cumprir as decisións. Este principio permaneceu inalterado dende o pasado ata o presente. Entre a etapa xeopolítica e o control efectivo, permanece unha gran brecha.

As principais potencias mundiais adoitan sentirse marxinadas no medio dos ideais progresistas imperantes, relegando á ONU a un foro de farsa xeopolítica máis que de acción efectiva. Esta dinámica supón unha carga financeira substancial para as nacións occidentais, alcanzando niveis cada vez máis insostibles para estas potencias influentes. Tendo todo isto en conta, é inminente a reestruturación das Nacións Unidas para abordar mellor as realidades globais contemporáneas.

The reasoning is clear: Western nations are facing growing marginalization within this international organization. As dissenting voices from other factions within the United Nations intensify, the case for restructuring becomes increasingly compelling. Historical precedent can be found in the League of Nations. If Donald Trump were to assume office again, a significant overhaul of the United Nations might become unavoidable. While current discourse centers on Trump’s policies, such a transformation would mark a pragmatic and crucial policy shift.

Cando as Nacións Unidas se achegan ao seu 80 aniversario, a perspectiva da súa reestruturación máis extensa é grande, e iso é o que o mundo debería observar.

Kung Chan é fundador de ANBOUND, un think tank independente con sede en Pequín, especializado en investigación de políticas públicas que abarca xeopolítica e relacións internacionais, desenvolvemento urbano e social, cuestións industriais e macroeconomía.

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