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Converter as promesas en acción: o papel vital do G7 no apoio ao futuro de Ucraína

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As the 2024 G7 Foreign Affairs Ministerial meeting takes place in Capri, Italy, the urgency for concrete action to support Ukraine has never been clearer. With Russian missiles continuing to decimate Ukraine’s already fragile energy system, leaving more than 200,000 people without electricity in Kyiv, stronger actions, not just words, are desperately needed from G7 leaders to restrain Putin’s thirst for destruction and aid Ukraine’s much-needed recovery efforts, write Svitlana Romanko, Founder and Director of Razom We Stand, and Anna Ackermann, Policy Analyst at the International Institute for Sustainable Development and Board Member of Ecoaction Ukraine.

Three key priorities must be at the forefront of the G7 agenda: closing fossil fuel sanction loopholes, transferring Russian frozen assets for Ukraine’s benefit, and extending support to Ukraine to rebuild cleaner and better.

Closing fossil fuel sanction loopholes is critical in undermining Russia’s ability to fund its war machine. While the EU and G7 countries have implemented bans on imports of coal, crude oil, and oil products, these efforts have only been partially effective, as Europe continues to facilitate Russia’s gas exports. Last year, Russia sent ships carrying more than 35 million cubic metres of LNG into EU ports, with Spain and Belgium each importing 35% of the total, followed by France at 23%. The remaining volume was distributed among other EU countries, including Germany and the Netherlands.

Russia’s total revenues from fossil fuel exports have remained staggeringly high, surpassing €600 billion since the beginning of the invasion. It is unacceptable that EU citizens are unwittingly contributing to funding countless war crimes in Ukraine, which translates to the equivalent of every EU citizen effectively handing over approximately €420 to the Kremlin.

To truly suppress Russia’s fossil fuel export revenues, stronger enforcement measures must be put in place. Agencies such as the US Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) and the UK’s Office of Financial Sanctions Implementation (OSFI), and their EU counterparts, must continue sanctioning vessels violating price caps and immediately ban transshipment of Russian LNG in EU ports.

Prohibir o transbordo continuo en portos como Zeebrugge en Bélxica, Montoir e Dunkerque en Francia, Bilbao e Mugardos en España e Róterdam nos Países Baixos, podería limitar as exportacións rusas a países extracomunitarios xa que dependen loxicamente destes portos para facilitar as vendas máis altas. a compradores non comunitarios.

Ademais, a importación de produtos petrolíferos producidos a partir de cru ruso debe prohibirse en países como a India, onde estes produtos petrolíferos representan só o 3% das importacións totais dos países sancionadores. As prohibicións non serían inflacionistas, pero reducirían os ingresos das exportacións rusas en 332 millóns de euros ao mes.

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Confiscation of Russian frozen assets presents another avenue for supporting Ukraine. Nearly US$300 billion of Russia’s sovereign assets have been frozen in G7 and EU states, with the majority held in Belgium and other EU member states. Confiscation of these assets is not only legally justifiable but is also a proportional international countermeasure against Russia’s aggression, which could spread beyond Ukraine if it continues to go unchecked. The frozen assets, including those of the Russian Central Bank, could serve as a key source of support and compensation for Ukraine’s losses and rebuilding needs, estimated at €453 billion, for two years of war.

Most importantly, supporting Ukraine to build back better is essential for its long-term recovery and resilience. With far over 50% of its energy infrastructure damaged or destroyed, Ukraine faces immense challenges in reconstruction. DTEK, Ukraine’s largest private energy company, has reported that five of its six big coal power plants have been damaged, resulting in an 80% capacity loss.

Tras a destrución por parte de Rusia da central eléctrica de Trypilska -a máis grande da rexión de Kiev- a empresa estatal Centrenergo informou dunha perda do 100% das instalacións de xeración. Os traballadores enerxéticos ucraínos seguen arriscando con valentía as súas vidas para manter as funcións vitais en funcionamento, a miúdo pagando o prezo final da súa dedicación ao seu país, con centos de empregados do sector enerxético mortos mentres traballaban para manter o sistema en funcionamento.

The World Bank estimates the total cost of economic recovery and reconstruction to be close to US$ 500 billion. Immediate reconstruction needs continue to grow, as does this figure, with Russian forces continuing to target Ukraine’s energy facilities and public infrastructure relentlessly. At least 20% of the total proposed budget for financing the reconstruction must be dedicated to supporting the clean energy transition, which simultaneously benefits climate and environmental measures.

Os proxectos de produción descentralizada de enerxía limpa, de eficiencia enerxética e de reconstrución verde xa son moi demandados polas comunidades ucraínas que buscan formas de mellorar a súa seguridade a curto, medio e longo prazo. Para mitigar o risco dunha catástrofe humanitaria, o aumento do financiamento para a construción de fontes de enerxía descentralizadas, como instalacións eólicas e paneis solares locais, ofrece enerxía fiable sen necesidade de importacións caras de combustibles fósiles e podería resultar vital para a reconstrución de Ucraína.

Recent record-breaking growth of financially advantageous renewables not only solves energy security demand but also mitigates climate challenges, offering a viable solution to Ukraine’s unique energy security needs.

As the G7 convenes, it must demonstrate true solidarity with Ukraine through decisive action, not just words of support in a closing statement. The time for strong rhetoric without matching actions has now passed; now is the time for real actions that will make a tangible difference in Ukraine’s journey towards peace, stability, and a clean energy resilient future. The G7 must rise to the occasion and deliver on its commitments to support Ukraine in its time of need.

Svitlana Romanko, doutora, é unha avogada ambiental internacional e directora de Razom We Stand, un movemento independente ucraíno dedicado á derrota permanente da agresión rusa impulsada por combustibles fósiles e a un futuro enerxético limpo para a Ucraína e o mundo.

Anna Ackermann é membro fundador do Centro de Iniciativas Ambientais "Ecoaction", onde traballou como xefa do departamento de clima e actualmente exerce como membro do consello. Tamén é analista de políticas no Instituto Internacional para o Desenvolvemento Sostible. traballando sobre unha reconstrución verde de Ucraína.

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